THE Sun Temple at Modhera, built in 1025-26, is much larger than the one at Vadnagar. Also, it is well maintained. However, from both the temples the main idol of the Sun is missing.

The Sun Temple Complex at Modhera consists of three distinctive structures. The entire complex faces east and runs from east to west.

The first structure, in the east, is Surya Kund (Sun Pool). It is a large, admeasuring 53.6 mtrs. by 36.6 mtrs., rectangular pool with ornately carved stepped walls on all the four sides. The Surya Kund (Sun Pool) used to remain filled with clean water. For any visitor approaching the temple from the east, it must be a stunning sight to see the grand temple lighted up by the morning sun and its shimmering image reflected in the blue waters of the pool.

The second part is Sabha Mandap (Assembly Hall) where all sorts of religious activities like dancing, music sessions, prayer meetings, etc. might have been taking place. Sabha Mandap is the most lavishly carved structure of the whole complex. Here, each sculpture is so beautifully carved that one is amazed at the skill of the sculptors. Sabha Mandap can easily stand proudly among the best of the stone creations in the world.

And the third part is Surya Mandir (Sun Temple) itself. The temple structure is made of two separate parts : Garbha Gruh (Sanctom Sanctorium) and Gooddh Mandap (Interior Hall). It was in the Garbha Gruh where the Sun idol was situated.

The entire temple complex is replete with beautiful carvings of all sorts. Among these are the various sculptures of the Sun God. Notable among them are the eleven idols of the Sun in the seated position above the entrance of Garbha Gruh. Sun idol in seated position is not found in any othe sun temple in the country. In fact, no other temple anywhere in the world has so many different and so beautifully carved sculptures of the Sun God.

For more about the Sun Temple at Modhera see:
1. Sun Temple Modhera
(An excellent video documentary on VCD. Produced by Vijay M. Mistry, Ketan M.
Mistry ,and Manibhai Mistry. Consultant: R. N. Mehta. Directed by: Dhiru Mistry and
Rishiraj Mistry.)
2. Modhera by Manilal Mulchand Mistry
(An authoritative book in Gujarati published by Shree Sayaji Balgyanmala, 1935.)